Thursday, 5 April 2012

What is Fluorine?

Fluorine (Atomic Number: 9).

Fluorine appears as a pale yellow gas, which is so corrosive; it can even destroy borosilicateglass (The stuff chemistry flasks are made of).

Fluorine, being the most reactive and electronegative element in existence, is both highly corrosive and toxic. Once it does react, it bonds so strongly that the resulting molecule is very inert and non-reactive to anything else. Teflon for example, is fluorine bonded with carbon.

Fluorine is a halogen: One of five non-metal elements, which contain a single highly reactive electron (-1 charge) (Monovalent ion).


Halogens are the only periodic group of elements that share all three familiar states of matter at the same given temperature and pressure.

Halogens are very reactive and harmful to biological organisms in sufficient quantities.

Fluorine is the most reactive element in existence, attacking otherwise inert materials such as glass and forming compounds with heavier noble gases, including Neon, Xenon, Radon, and Krypton (Noble Gases).

Noble Gases

The noblegases are a group of chemical elements with very similar properties: under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases, with very low chemical reactivity. Because their outer shell of valence electrons are considered to be full.

The six noble gases that occur naturally are Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe), and the radioactive Radon (Rn).

Inert Gas

The term inert gas is context-dependent because nitrogen gas and several other noble gases can be made to react under certain conditions.

Unlike noble gases, an inert gas is not necessarily elemental and is often a compound gas. Like the noble gases the tendency for non-reactivity is due to the valence, the outermost electron shell, being complete in all inert gases.

This is a tendency, not a rule, as noble gases and other "inert" gases can react to form compounds.

Where does Fluorine come from?

Fluorine once safely bound with Aluminium, copper and iron in the earth’s crust was reintroduced into the environment in its ionic state.  The fluorides were not only being buried in the ground and put into the water, they were also being released into the air by industrial processes.

Fluorine & Fluoride

Fluoride is the negative ion of the element fluorine (Atomic Number: 9).

When Fluorine forms a binary compound with another element or radical
(A binary compound contains exactly two different elements), that compound then becomes a fluoride, and then named after the fluoride atom (e.g., Bifluoride, HF2-).

Fluorides can be either organic or inorganic compounds which contain the element fluorine. As a halogen, fluorine forms one monovalent bond (-1 charge), with another element.

Different examples of fluorides: Hydrofluoric acid (HF), Sodium Fluoride (NaF) and Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) and Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6).

Note: The Fluorine atom is often written as F-
(The 'F' being for the Fluorine atom, and the 'minus' as the single monolevolent bond)

Summary: Fluorides are binary compounds which contain the element fluorine.

What Is Sodium Fluoride?

Dictionary Definitions

A colourless crystalline salt used in fluoridation of water, in treatment of tooth decay, and as an insecticide and a disinfectant. ~ MedicalDefinition

Poisonous crystalline salt NaF that is used in trace amounts in the fluoridation of drinking water and toothpastes, in metallurgy, as a flux, and as a pesticide. ~ MerriamWebster Definition

Chemical Formula: NaF
CAS Number: 7681-49-4
Molecular Weight: 41.99
Physical Appearance: Powder
Water solubility: 4 g/100 mL (25C)

Material Safety Data Sheet (M.S.D.S.) from the company "Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc".
Located in California (America), Santa Cruz, 2145 Delaware Ave.
Telephone: 800 457 3801 or 831 457 3800

Toxic if swallowed.
Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas.
Irritating to the eye’s and skin.

Animal experiments indicate that ingestion of less than 40 grams may be fatal or may produce serious damage to the health of the individual Fluoride causes severe loss of Calcium in the blood.

Swallowing: If conscious, induce vomiting with fingers down the back of the throat. 

Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc: World leader of the development of products for the biomedical research market. Over 20 years, the company has focused on the ongoing development of research antibodies, biochemicals, labware and more recently has expanded into animal Heathcare products. Sodium Fluoride can be bought at $47 per 125grams (Since: 14/5/2012).

Catalog: Sodium Fluoride (NaF-) is an inhibitor of serine/ threonine phosphatases. Induces endothelial cell dysfunction as indicated by increased albumin permebility and decreased widely suadies in bone and dental research.
Note: Aqueous Naf- solutions will etch glass containers.